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[70], At the end of Operation Protea, South Africa had captured over 3,000 tonnes of ammunition, overrun some 38,850 square kilometres of Angolan territory, and inflicted serious casualties on SWAPO and FAPLA. [127] This process entailed releasing oil into a nitrogen reservoir as the gun recoiled upon firing. Ongeacht het seizoen, zelfs in de winter, kan een ratelslang zich naar buiten wagen op zoek naar warmte — een prettige luchttemperatuur voor ratelslangen is ongeveer 21° tot 32°C). [92] The conference concluded after forty-seven plenary sessions with agreements on a phased political transition, a constitutional conference including the insurgent factions, and a ceasefire on 15 December 1979. Ze zullen zich onmiddellijk onder struiken of dicht gras verschuilen, dus zet je voeten niet in of op die plaatsen! At SADF review meetings, the reservists involved were bluntly criticised as "the worst battle group in 82 Mechanised Brigade". Petit et mignon, le ratel n'en est pas moins l'animal le plus féroce qui soit. Het is een mythe dat jonge ratelslangen giftiger zijn dan volwassen slangen. [85], Rhodesia waged a long and bitter counter-insurgency campaign against two rival insurgent armies, the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA), from 1965 to 1980. [94] ZNA engineers disarmed and removed the remaining devices, albeit with some difficulty, as the Elands' turrets had to be removed to access their fuel tanks. [70] South Africa finally took what was left of Cuvelai on January 7. [65], During the course of Operation Reindeer, numerous Elands repeatedly stalled in mud and even loose sand, leaving no alternative but to tow them out with the much heavier Ratels. Designed and built for long-range reconnaissance, it mounts either a 60mm (2.4 in) breech-loading mortar or a Denel 90mm (3.5 in) gun on a very compact chassis. Wees voorzichtig na zonsondergang wanneer je op verharde wegen of trottoirs loopt. The former's fire support potential was useful, but its mobility was inferior to that of the Ratel and the need to maintain a separate logistics apparatus for a separate vehicle type, especially one with a petrol engine, was not deemed economical. Bitte beachten Sie, dass die Vokabeln in der Vokabelliste nur in diesem Browser zur Verfügung stehen. [22] A surplus of parts were manufactured for the Eland as well as the original AML series; according to General Jannie Geldenhuys, after 1979 Panhard actually fulfilled orders for older AML parts it no longer produced by sourcing them from South Africa. Throughout 1982 Eland-90s were a common sight on the roads around Xangongo, deterring SWAPO from reentering the town. [56], By 1983, FAPLA had completed an exhaustive two-year retraining and reequipment programme, greatly increasing in size, sophistication, and competence under the eye of Soviet military advisors. [37] Their petrol engines were also an issue, since this factor necessitated a separate logistics apparatus from those of the Ratels. Luister naar het geluid van de ratel middels deze opname van de San Diego Zoo: De meeste ratelslangen houden van een hete omgeving, waarbij sommige woestijnklimaten prefereren en anderen, zoals de oostelijke diamantratelslang, vertoeven liever in een vochtig klimaat. The Eland simply lacked the range and mobility to keep pace with the Ratels during a firefight, and was more prone to technical malfunctions in the bush. Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Plutôt que de faire une longue définition écrite, penchons-nous sur la vidéo de Brut. This site uses cookies. [51] As part of its own covert intervention programme in Angola, the Central Intelligence Agency was able to persuade Zaire to donate some Panhard AML-90s and M40 recoilless rifles to the FNLA and UNITA in exchange for receiving more modern American weaponry. [72], The assault on Ongiva began with an air strike on 27 August, while artillery engaged in knocking out predetermined FAPLA or SWAPO targets. [61] The Elands opened fire, destroying the lead tank and forcing the others to withdraw. 4 Squadron. Probeer een ratelslang niet te provoceren. Bestrating blijft warm na zonsondergang. [86] Its motto, “Seek and Squeak”, parodied the “Seek and Strike” maxim of the RhAF's No. [56] Eland-90s performed reconnaissance by fire, depending on their speed and mobility to carry them through potential ambushes. [82] Three were detached to safeguard the hydroelectric dam at Calueque, while the others returned to South West Africa. Volgens veel bronnen sterven meer mensen aan wespen en bijensteken in de Verenigde Staten dan van de beten van ratelslangen. [115] There are two hydraulic braking systems, one for the front and one for the rear.[24]. [78], Much was learned from Elands' performance in Operation Savannah. Un Ratel ? [27] The fleet then consisted of 369 Eland-60s and 131 Eland-90s. A number of trailing BTR-152s, GAZ-66s, and BM-21s were also captured or destroyed. [98] Orders for Panhard AML-90s were placed with France; although some did arrive in second-hand condition,[2] Panhard had long closed its production line and referred Morocco to South Africa. [94] Devine was ordered to intercept and destroy them. [23], Operated by a crew of three, each Eland was built on a small and remarkably lightweight 4X4 chassis with a height of 2.5 metres, a length of 5.12 metres, and a weight of 6 metric tons. [6] The South African Armoured Corps retired most of its Elands from combat service in the late 1980s, utilising them primarily for training Ratel-90 crews. Others survive on SANDF bases as gate guardians. [47] The personnel involved were stripped of all their identifiable equipment, even their dog tags, and re-issued with nondescript uniforms and personal weapons impossible to trace. Der Eintrag wurde Ihren Favoriten hinzugefügt. Ga de boot uit en help de slang voorzichtig uit je boot met een peddel of lange stok. Van Lill informed General Viljoen that the Eland-90 simply could not stand up to the heavier protection and armament of T-54/55s. [34] The other two were reported as destroyed by FAPLA's 59 Brigade on 2 December 1987. Most had been dug in for use as static artillery - firing from entrenched positions near FAPLA camps and installations. [55] The Elands were attached to two separate composite battlegroups of motorised infantry, code named Task Force Zulu and Task Force Foxbat, respectively. Op deze manier kun je een ratelslang ontdekken die eronder beschutting heeft gezocht, en snel zorgen dat je uit diens buurt komt. [137], In January 2005, two Elands at the South African National Museum of Military History were repossessed and impounded by the SANDF. This settlement was garrisoned by FAPLA's 19th Brigade, which included a T-34 company and mechanised squadron. [8] The Eland Mk7 was kept in production for another eight years, until its basic technology had become quite dated despite continuous upgrades. Vertrouw niet op de ratel als enige vorm van identificatie. Il était une fois dans une galaxie pas si lointaine nommée Mensa ... Un animal des plus belliqueux qui se nommait "Le Ratel".... Qu'est-ce donc que ce petit animal ? [70] The latter was preferred, as Elands experienced difficulty observing other forces in thick bush. [10], Eland hulls are constructed of a welded homogenous steel that provides moderate protection against grenade fragments, antipersonnel mines, and light weapons. Arriveer bij daglicht en zet alles op bij daglicht. [89] Following a failed project to increase the Ferret's firepower by the addition of a 20mm autocannon, the Rhodesian government turned to South Africa, which offered to supply RhACR with Eland-90s. [113] The mortar weighs 75 kg and is 1.8 metres long. [30], The Eland continued to enjoy distinction in SADF service, especially with the Special Service Battalion and 61 Mechanised Infantry Battalion Group. [124], Like the AML, the Eland is equipped with a two-person turret. [98] They were accompanied by eight South African instructors for training Moroccan crews, though other personnel were expressly forbidden to approach them. Ihre Nachricht wurde jetzt an die PONS-Redaktion übermittelt. An estimated 200 Mk7s were haggled from the SANDF for diesel conversion. [102] A large guerrilla force was able to trap and cut off the column of armoured cars in the valley. [94] The explosives were discovered when two detonated prematurely after becoming saturated by petrol. [86], The Elands gave much-needed mobility to STU personnel and allowed them to take part in responding quickly to insurgent raids, particularly one well-planned ZANLA assault on Grand Reef Air Base in 1978. [28] Permission was granted by the South African political leadership to have the AMLs manned by the instructors until such a time as the UNITA crews could be trained to a minimal standard. [82] The advance was being screened by a reconnaissance troop of BRDM-2s, which blundered into the killzone and were engaged by the Eland-90s. [89] The first sixteen Eland-90s were delivered to the regiment in 1975. Alors que le ratel mangeait paisiblement un repas constitué de petites proies, un serpent des plus venimeux s'approcha furtivement... Les lions étaient occupés plus loin dans la savane, Le Ratel était donc décontracté. Sluit de flap van de tent nachts als je gaat kamperen in ratelslangterrein, want anders kan je wel eens wakker worden met een zeer ongewenste verrassing. [6] Domestic markings had been censored prior to export, but the vehicles were identified by an Afrikaans inscription on their intact fill caps. [108] In September 2006, it emerged that President Idriss Déby of Chad was negotiating their purchase. [89] More Eland-90s were successively donated or loaned to the RhACR until 1979, and the earlier Eland Mk5s replaced by Mk6s. In August 1981, four mechanised battlegroups staged Operation Protea - converging on SWAPO camps at Ongiva and Xangongo. Spotting tanks was a particular problem. [83] Soviet sources reference at least three Eland-90s knocked out during Operation Moduler and Operation Hooper. This contradicted South African Armoured Corps (SAAC) doctrine, which was to fight tanks with tanks. [94], After 1980, the former Rhodesian Armoured Car Regiment, now part of the Zimbabwe Armoured Corps, was reduced to a single regular squadron of Eland-90s. Alleen maar om leven een beetje moeilijker te maken, is het belangrijk om je te beseffen dat ratelslangen niet, of niet altijd, hun ratel gebruiken om te waarschuwen voor een naderende aanval. [76] It was not deployed in Angola by the SADF again. Soviet commander Valentin Varennikov, who was instrumental in directing the Angolan defence, was confident that "given their numerical strength and armament, the brigades...[would] be able to repel any South African attack". “The role of South African armour in South West Africa/Namibia and Angola: 1975-1989”. [58] South African army engineers began to repair the bridge under the cover of darkness on December 11, allowing the accompanying Elands to launch a surprise attack across it at dawn. [123], Various demonstrators have been built at the SANDF School of Armour utilising an Eland drive train, suspension, or chassis. [152], For several decades, an Eland-90 captured by FAPLA during Operation Savannah was publicly displayed in a square near the centre of Luanda. [93] Recognising that its Rhodesian allies were politically moribund, the South African government began withdrawing its support. Ook ratelen natte ratelslangen niet. [94] Being relatively neutral in the dispute, the former Rhodesian Armoured Car Regiment was seen as a prime candidate for restoring order. Les 3 paires de glandes salivaires: Het kan in een reflex bijten, ook al is het dood. Don’t have an account yet? [128] In theory, these modifications also permitted the gun to be fired while the vehicle was in forward motion,[128] although crews were prohibited from doing so due to the likelihood of transmission damage. The post was edited 1 time, last by danish (Dec 20th 2019). [87] At one point, it was standard practice at New Sarum for at least one Eland-60 crew to circle the airfield and check for suspicious activity or any other irregularities before an aircraft landed. [94] A proposal to retrofit the ZNA Elands with upgraded 90mm guns and turrets was discussed but never reached fruition. [35], Once envisaged only as a scout car, the Eland auspiciously doubled in the role of an assault gun and an ersatz tank destroyer[8]—but its obsolescence was highlighted by several factors, namely a flammable petrol engine which was especially vulnerable to rocket-propelled grenades or mine explosions, and its limited off-road mobility. [120], Several foreign companies currently offer extensive rebuild or overhaul programmes for the Eland, particularly with regards to improving engine performance and reliability. Het kan leiden tot necrose en het verlies van de ledematen. Hier können Sie uns Verbesserungen dieses PONS-Eintrags vorschlagen: We are using the following form field to detect spammers. [90] The Ferret design also lacked the firepower to be truly effective against hardened ground targets and dug-in insurgents, being armed with just a single general-purpose machine gun. Een plat, driehoekige kop (hoewel dit niet toereikend is om de slang te determineren) — breder aan de basis van de kop dan aan de voorkant. [94] On February 8, the armoured cars charged the mutineers' camp at Glenville and overran it with little resistance. [70] "Tank busting" expended too much 90mm ammunition and fatigued recoil systems. La bataille se termine par un match nul... L'attaquant a perdu un total de 248.800.000 unités. [27] These issues highlighted the need for a dedicated infantry fighting vehicle in SADF service, which soon emerged in the form of the Ratel. Laat de sandalen maar thuis — dit is tijd voor zware wandellaarzen van goede kwaliteit en fatsoenlijke sokken. [44], On one occasion an Eland-90 detonated two TM-46s, which sent the vehicle airborne and hurled it about thirty metres away, after which it landed on its turret. [72], South African forces advanced on 23 August, cutting Xangongo off from Ongiva and establishing a blocking force near Chicusse. [19], In response to SADF inquiries concerning an AML more similar to the Saladin in terms of armament, Panhard produced the AML-90. [89] However, the Rhodesians abandoned the façade after the last South African police officers were recalled from that country in 1976. Three years after Springfield-Bussing built the first prototype in 1974, Magnus Malan reported to Parliament that the Ratel was "successfully industrialised". Voor je het weet ga je op een ratelslang zitten... Stap op hindernissen en niet er overheen. Although lightly armoured, the vehicle's permanent 4X4 drive makes it faster over flat terrain than many tanks. Veel onoplettende slapers zijn onaangenaam ontwaakt. If you would like to use all features of this site, it is mandatory to enable JavaScript. [60][31] Futile attempts were made to recover the armoured cars for several hours, after which Foxbat withdrew. De ratelslang van het eiland Santa Catalina is een ratelslang die minder ratelt; het dier ontbreekt het aan de gebruikelijke ratelsegmenten. [31] While reconnoitering potential routes by which to attack Quibala from the east, Foxbat encountered an intact bridge over the Mabassa River near the village of Ebo. Its own crews carried out repair and recovery with limited resources. [72] In preparation for potential encounters with FAPLA T-34-85 tanks, elements of 61 Mechanised practised "firebelt" actions, integrating mutual support and specialised manoeuvres. [24] The complete round is 654mm in length with the projectile being 500mm in length. Of ze verkiezen om te vertrouwen op hun kleur als camouflage, alleen om zich te beseffen dat dit niet gaat werken om zich te beschermen tegen naderende menselijke voeten. [78] Furthermore, the Eland-90 proved that it was powerful enough to defeat the heaviest armour ranged against it, the Soviet T-34. Upon identifying the point vehicle as a BRDM-2, a South African spotter ordered "skiet hom met ‘n 90," ("shoot it with a 90[mm]"). [31] Undeterred, both South African battlegroups began searching for alternative routes towards the east. En soms zal het dier gewoon niet ratelen, als extra verdediging tijdens het vervellen, tijdens de paring en geboorte. In Ihrem Browser ist Javascript deaktiviert. [60][31] The surviving Elands on the opposite bank found it difficult to take evasive action due to their inability to manoeuvre in thick mud, and another three were destroyed. Onthoud het volgende — een slang zal zich in een dergelijk geval verdedigen tegen een aanval, en als je het dier port met stokken, met stenen gooit, schopt of domme dingen eromheen doet, dan vraag je om problemen. Hoor je echter het geratel, dan ben je duidelijk gewaarschuwd -- dus houd afstand. But Cuvelai had been identified as a key location in SWAPO's upcoming monsoon offensive, and had to be neutralised before Victor could be withdrawn. This would prove to be a fatal error, as the close proximity of the Elands to each other and their crews' failure to exploit their mobility allowed the guerrillas to concentrate their mortars and anti-tank weapons on the lightly armoured vehicles. [90] The driver is seated at the front of the vehicle and is provided with a one-piece hatch cover that swings to the right. [126] With the muzzle brake, it measures 4.1 metres in length. [27] This was never implemented but the advantages of an ATGM capability in armoured car regiments were recognised as a means to compensate for the mediocre range of the Eland-90's main armament. [17], One hundred AMLs were purchased, presumably for preliminary evaluation purposes, as well as enough turrets, engines, and other associated parts for the later assembly of another 800 in South Africa. [19], Sandock VAs initially fared rather poorly; all 56 models furbished in 1966 were rejected by the South African Army. [83] It is unclear whether this is a reference to the same action, as FAPLA claimed the South African unit responsible was 32 Battalion,[83] which was not deployed near Ongiva at the time and only equipped with Ratel-90s. [59] The Cubans planned an elaborate defence of Catengue, intending to pin the South African armoured cars on the road and strip away the supporting FNLA foot soldiers with a composite battery of 82mm mortars and Grad-P 122mm rocket artillery. [69], SWAPO cadres and their Angolan hosts were undeterred by preceding SADF campaigns. [17] In 1969, South African officials proposed fitting the existing fleet with ENTAC wire-guided anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs). [62] Savannah was the SAAC's first experience of mobile warfare in the Angolan bush, creating a laboratory where new tactics could be tested. Charlie and Alpha laid down suppressive fire. [14] This was mounted on a sliding frame to facilitate easier engine removal and maintenance. Journal for Contemporary History 31/3, December 1986. Savane présente sur bon nombre de planète chaude proche des plus grosses étoiles. [89] The Mozambicans responded by counterattacking with a T-54 tank company, supported by mechanised infantry in BTR-152 armoured personnel carriers. [11], When needed, Eland-90s could accommodate two ENTAC or SS.11 missiles, both of which slide out of external rails to be launched. [58] One of the last settlements the SADF needed to capture before it could reach within striking distance of Luanda itself was Porto Amboim. [28] The defenders were routed. [78] On 24 June, the SWATF and SADF retreated south after clashing with the Cuban tanks advancing on Cuamato, just north of the border. Le défenseur fait un profit de 109.839.701 unités. Gebruik eventueel beenkappen, vooral als je ervoor kiest om geen lange broek te dragen. [94] The number of Elands inherited by the ZNA is disputed, with some sources citing sixteen[89] and others twenty-eight. Als zodanig zal je ze waarschijnlijk in de buurt van rotsen, struiken en andere lage begroeiing vinden, of daar waar er hoekjes voor hen zijn om zich onder te verbergen. [12][27] Reports of PT-76 and T-34-85 tanks being fielded by FAPLA during the Angolan Civil War perturbed South African military advisers then involved in training FAPLA's rivals, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and its armed wing. [27] The squat, compact vehicles were often ridiculed as "noddy cars" by infantrymen due to their quaint profile and small size as compared to the much heavier Ratel. [44][45] Mine-laying was often used as a means to throw the convoys into disarray prior to an ambush. [28] The combat teams were backed by rear echelon which included a battery of towed BL 5.5-inch Medium Guns and logistics vehicles carrying enough fuel and ammunition for the journey; these were escorted by Eland-60s in a supporting role. [17] Due to poor visibility on the battlefield, turret crews were inclined to leave all their hatches open for maximum situational awareness. Stapels hout zijn een ideale schuilplaats voor ratelslangen. [168], Eland armoured cars feature prominently in the Larry Bond novel Vortex, which depicts a hypothetical SADF invasion of newly independent Namibia during the early 1990s. [133][134] A statistic released by the Department of Defence in 1997 confirmed that Elands valued in excess of 41.3 million rand had been scrapped. [125], South Africa formally retired its Eland fleet in 1994. The 20mm cannon has a cyclic rate of fire of 750 rounds per minute. Danish, univers Jupiter Ascendiing, alliance P0utres ------------ Top 5, fini de longue date ------------. [47] Factional infighting between the three rival Angolan nationalist movements pursuing their own separate strategies directed towards consolidating political power and influence in the colonial state was almost inevitable; by mid 1975 the country had degenerated into outright civil war.

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